• Logo
  • SBMUJournals

Differences in Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase1- (PARP1-) and Proliferative Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) Immunoreactivity in Patients Who Experienced Successful and Unsuccessful Microdissection Testicular Sperm Extraction Procedures

Süleyman Akarsu, Baris Büke, Seren Gülsen Gürgen, Serkan Akdemir, Funda Gode, Merve Biçer, Mustafa Agah Tekindal, Ahmet Zeki Isik




Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate expression of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis and repair markers in testicular tissues of azoospermic men in whom sperm retrieval could and could not be achieved as a result of microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) procedure.
Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, testicular tissues were retrieved from 60 Non-obstructive Azoospermia (NOA) patients who underwent micro-TESE procedure. These patients were divided into two
groups: micro-TESE positive group, which included 30 NOA patients from whom sperm could be extracted via micro-TESE procedure; and micro-TESE negative group, which included 30 NOA patients from whom sperm retrieval could not be achieved via micro-TESE procedure. Expression and distribution patterns of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in extracted tissues were assessed
by immunohistochemical staining to reveal any differences in DNA synthesis and repair between the two groups.
Results: Micro-TESE positive group exhibited significantly stronger immunoreactivity for both PCNA and PARP-1 (P = .001 and P = .001 respectively). The results of this study reveal that both DNA synthesis and repair markers were expressed strongly in patients who experienced successful micro-TESE procedure.
Conclusion: Although further studies are needed to support these findings, PARP-1 and PCNA expression in testicular tissues of NOA patients could be promising predictive factors for micro-TESE procedure success.


Kumar N, Sıngh A K. Trends Of Male Factor Infertility, An İmportant Cause Of Infertility: A Review Of Literature. Journal Of Human Reproductive Sciences. 2015; 8: 191.

Palermo GD, Schlegel PN, Harıprashad JJ, et al. Fertilization And Pregnancy Outcome With İntracytoplasmic Sperm Injection For Azoospermic Men. Human Reproduction. 1999;14:741-8.

Ezeh UI. Beyond The Clinical Classification Of Azoospermia: Opinion. Human Reproduction. 2000;15:2356-9.

Devroey P, Lıu J, Nagy Z, et al. Pregnancies After Testicular Sperm Extraction and Intracytoplasmic Sperm İnjection in Non-Obstructive Azoospermia. Human Reproduction. 1995;10:1457-60.

Donoso P, Tournaye H, Devroey P. Which is The Best Sperm Retrieval Technique For Non-Obstructive Azoospermia? A Systematic Review. Human Reproduction Update. 2007;13:539-549.

Bernıe AM, Mata DA, Ramasamy R, Schlegel PN. Comparison Of Microdissection Testicular Sperm Extraction, Conventional Testicular Sperm Extraction, And Testicular Sperm Aspiration For Nonobstructive Azoospermia: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis. Fertility And Sterility. 2015;104:1099-1103.

D'amours D, Desnoyers S, D'sılva I, Poırıer GG. Poly (Adp-Ribosyl) Ation Reactions in The Regulation Of Nuclear Functions. Biochemical Journal. 1999;342:249-68.

Olıver FJ, Menıssıer-De Murcıa J, De Murcıa G. Poly (Adp-Ribose) Polymerase in The Cellular Response To Dna Damage, Apoptosis, And Disease. The American Journal Of Human Genetics. 1999. 64, 1282-8.

Steger K, Aleıthe I, Behre H, Bergmann M. The Proliferation Of Spermatogonia in Normal and Pathological Human Seminiferous Epithelium: An Immunohistochemical Study Using Monoclonal Antibodies Against Ki-67 Protein And Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen. Molecular Human Reproduction. 1998;4:227-33.

Altay B, Çetinkalp Ş, Doǧanavşargıl B, Hekimgil M, Semerci B. Streptozotocin-İnduced Diabetic Effects On Spermatogenesis With Proliferative Cell Nuclear Antigen Immunostaining of Adult Rat Testis. Fertility And Sterility. 2003;80:828-31.

Cooper TG, Noonan E, Eckardstein S, Auger J. World Health Organization Reference Values For Human Semen Characteristics. Hum Reprod Update. 2010;16:231-45.

Schlegel, P. N. 1999. Testicular Sperm Extraction: Microdissection Improves Sperm Yield With Minimal Tissue Excision. Human Reproduction, 14, 131-5.

Gürgen SG, Sayın O, Cetin F, Yücel AT. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (Tens) Accelerates Cutaneous Wound Healing And Inhibits Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines. Inflammation. 2014;37:775-84.

Aıtken RJ, Clarkson JS, Fıshel S. Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species, Lipid Peroxidation, And Human Sperm Function. Biology of Reproduction. 1989;41:183-197.

Saleh RA, Hcld AA. Oxidative Stress And Male Infertility: From Research Bench To Clinical Practice. Journal Of Andrology. 2002; 23:737-52.

Aıtken RJ, Krausz C. Oxidative Stress, Dna Damage And The Y Chromosome. Reproduction. 2001; 122: 497-506.

Maymon BBS, Cohen-Armon M, Yavetz H et al. Role Of Poly (Adp-Ribosyl) Ation During Human Spermatogenesis. Fertility And Sterility, 2006;86:1402-7.

Meyer-Fıcca ML, Meyer RG, Jacobson EL, Jacobson MK. Poly (Adp-Ribose) Polymerases: Managing Genome Stability. The international Journal Of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, 2005;37:920-6.

Celık-Ozencı C, Tasatargıl A. 2013. Role Of Poly (Adp-Ribose) Polymerases in Male Reproduction. Spermatogenesis, 3, E24194.

Du L, Zhang X, Han YY, et al. Intra-Mitochondrial Poly (Adp-Ribosylation) Contributes To Nad+ Depletion And Cell Death İnduced By Oxidative Stress. Journal Of Biological Chemistry, 2003; 278:18426-33.

Vırág L, Robaszkıewıcz A, Rodrıguez-Vargas JM, Olıver FJ. Poly (Adp-Ribose) Signaling in Cell Death. Molecular Aspects Of Medicine. 2013;34:1153-67.

El-Domyatı MM, Al-Dın ABM, Barakat MT, et al. The Expression And Distribution of Deoxyribonucleic Acid Repair And Apoptosis Markers in Testicular Germ Cells of İnfertile Varicocele Patients Resembles That Of Old Fertile Men. Fertility And Sterility. 2010; 93: 795-801.

Chang FW, Sun GH, Cheng YY, Chen IC, Chıen HH, Wu GJ. Effects Of Varicocele Upon The Expression Of Apoptosis Related Proteins. Andrologia. 2010;42:225-230.

Wyrobek AJ, Eskenazı B, Young S, et al. Advancing Age Has Differential Effects On Dna Damage, Chromatin Integrity, Gene Mutations, And Aneuploidies in Sperm. Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences. 2006;103:9601-06.

El-Domyatı MM., Al-Dın ABM, Barakat MT, El-Fakahany HM, Xu J, Sakkas D. Deoxyribonucleic Acid Repair And Apoptosis İn Testicular Germ Cells Of Aging Fertile Men: The Role Of The Poly (Adenosine Diphosphate-Ribosyl) Ation Pathway. Fertility And Sterility. 2009;91: 2221-9.

Delahunt B, Bethwaıte PB, Nacey JN, Rıbas JL. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (Pcna) Expression As A Prognostic Indicator For Renal Cell Carcinoma: Comparison With Tumour Grade, Mitotic Index, And Silver Staining Nucleolar Organizer Region Numbers. The Journal Of Pathology, 1993;170:471-7.

Zeng L, Kong XT, Su JW, Xıa TL, Na YQ, Guo YL. Evaluation Of Germ-Cell Kinetics İn İnfertile Patients With Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Proliferating İndex. Asian J Androl. 2001;1:63-66

Russell LD, Chiarini-Garcia H, Korsmeyer SJ, Knudson C. MBax-dependent spermatogonia apoptosis is required for testicular development and spermatogenesis. Biol. Reprod. 2002;66:950-958.

Gavrieli Y, Sherman Y, Ben-Sasson SA. Identification of programmed cell death in situ via specific labeling of nuclear DNA fragmentation. J Cell Biol 1992;119:493–501.

Sun JG, Jurisicova A, Casper RF. Detection of deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation in human sperm (correlation with fertilization in vitro) . Biol Reprod. 1997; 56: 602–607

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/uj.v14i5.3914


  • There are currently no refbacks.