Purpose: Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) affect many women worldwide. The prevalence of LUTS among Iranian women has not been reported. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and its bother rate among women ?20 years old living in Isfahan, a central province of Iran.
Materials and Methods:
This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The data was collected using a population-based survey on women aged ?20 years selected from the general population of Isfahan (a central province of Iran. A total of 2609 women were approached for the study. After obtaining demographic features, the participants completed the Persian version of the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire for Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (ICIQ-FLUTS).
Results: 95.5% of the participants had at least one Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms. The most common symptoms were urgency (82.4%) and stress urinary incontinence (44.5%). Nocturia (one or more occasions) was also noted in 60.7%. The highest bother rate was related to urgency.
Conclusion: The prevalence of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms was high in the studied women. Among Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms, urgency and nocturnal enuresis were the most and the least frequent symptoms. However, the bother rate of the symptoms was relatively low.
(1) Coyne KS, Sexton CC, Thompson CL, Milsom I, Irwin D, Kopp ZS, et al. The prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in the USA, the UK and Sweden: results from the Epidemiology of LUTS (EpiLUTS) study. BJU international 2009;104(3):352-60.
(2) Abrams P, Cardozo L, Fall M, Griffiths D, Rosier P, Ulmsten U, et al. The standardisation of terminology of lower urinary tract function: report from the Standardisation Sub_committee of the International Continence Society. Neurourology and urodynamics 2002;21(2):167-78.
(3) Girman CJ, Jacobsen SJ, Tsukamoto T, Richard F, Garraway WM, Sagnier PP, et al. Health-related quality of life associated with lower urinary tract symptoms in four countries. Urology 1998;51(3):428-36.
(4) Irwin DE, Kopp ZS, Agatep B, Milsom I, Abrams P. Worldwide prevalence estimates of lower urinary tract symptoms, overactive bladder, urinary incontinence and bladder outlet obstruction. BJU international 2011;108(7):1132-8.
(5) Irwin DE, Milsom I, Hunskaar S, Reilly K, Kopp Z, Herschorn S, et al. Population-based survey of urinary incontinence, overactive bladder, and other lower urinary tract symptoms in five countries: results of the EPIC study. European urology 2006;50(6):1306-15.
(6) Boyle P, Robertson C, Mazzetta C, Keech M, Hobbs FDR, Fourcade R, et al. The prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms in men and women in four centres. The UrEpik study. BJU international 2003;92(4):409-14.
(7) Coyne KS, Sexton CC, Irwin DE, Kopp ZS, Kelleher CJ, Milsom I. The impact of overactive bladder, incontinence and other lower urinary tract symptoms on quality of life, work productivity, sexuality and emotional well-being in men and women: results from the EPIC study. BJU international 2008;101(11):1388-95.
(8) van Breda HM, Bosch JR, de Kort LM. Hidden prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms in healthy nulligravid young women. International urogynecology journal 2015;26(11):1637-43.
(9) Pourmomeny AA, Rezaeian ZS, Soltanmohamadi M. Translation and linguistic validation of the Persian version of the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms instrument. International urogynecology journal 2017;28(9):1329-33.
(10) Ghandour L, Minassian V, Al-Badr A, Ghaida RA, Geagea S, Bazi T. Prevalence and degree of bother of pelvic floor disorder symptoms among women from primary care and specialty clinics in Lebanon: an exploratory study. International urogynecology journal 2017;28(1):105-18.
(11) Coyne KS, Kaplan SA, Chapple CR, Sexton CC, Kopp ZS, Bush EN, et al. Risk factors and comorbid conditions associated with lower urinary tract symptoms: EpiLUTS. BJU international 2009;103:24-32.
(12) Zhang W, Song Y, He X, Xu B, Huang H, He C, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of lower urinary tract symptoms in Fuzhou Chinese women. European urology 2005;48(2):309-13.
(13) Chuang FC, Kuo HC. Prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms in indigenous and non-indigenous women in Eastern Taiwan. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 2010;109(3):228-36.
(14) Liao YM, Dougherty MC, Biemer PP, Boyington AR, Liao CT, Palmer MH, et al. Prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms among female elementary school teachers in Taipei. International urogynecology journal 2007;18(10):1151-61.
(15) Liao YM, Yang CY, Kao CC, Dougherty MC, Lai YH, Chang Y, et al. Prevalence and impact on quality of life of lower urinary tract symptoms among a sample of employed women in Taipei: a questionnaire survey. International journal of nursing studies 2009;46(5):633-44.
(16) Pinnock CB, Marshall VR. Troublesome lower urinary tract symptoms in the community: a prevalence study. The Medical Journal of Australia 1997;167(2):72-5.
(17) Nojomi M, Amin EB, Rad RB. Urinary incontinence: hospital-based prevalence and risk factors. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 2008;13(1):22-8.
(18) Safarinejad MR. Prevalence of the overactive bladder among Iranian women based on the International Continence Society definition: a population-based study. International urology and nephrology 2009;41(1):35-45.
(19) Milsom I, Irwin DE. A cross-sectional, population-based, multinational study of the prevalence of overactive bladder and lower urinary tract symptoms: results from the EPIC study. european urology supplements 2007;6(1):4-9.
(20) Temml C, Heidler S, Ponholzer A, Madersbacher S. Prevalence of the overactive bladder syndrome by applying the International Continence Society definition. European urology 2005;48(4):622-7.
(21) Milsom I, Abrams P, Cardozo L, Roberts RG, ThUroff J, Wein AJ. How widespread are the symptoms of an overactive bladder and how are they managed? A populationbased prevalence study. BJU international 2001;87(9):760-6.
(22) Lapitan MC, Chyeon PLH. The epidemiology of overactive bladder among females in Asia: a questionnaire survey. International urogynecology journal 2001;12(4):226-31.
(23) Schulman CC, Asplund R, Desgrandchamps F, Jonas U. The impact of nocturia on health status and quality of life in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH). european urology supplements 2005;4(2):1-8.
(24) Haj SE, Mostafaie H, Torabi Z, Beighzali S, Parnianfard N, Bagheri Z. S36 Prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and urinary incontinence among Iranian young adult and correlation of their knowledge with current evidences. european urology supplements 2013;12(4):e1144-e1S36.
(25) Rios AA, Cardoso JR, Rodrigues MA F, de Almeida SHM. The help-seeking by women with urinary incontinence in Brazil. International urogynecology journal 2011;22(7):879-84.
(26) Ng SF, Lok MK, Pang SM, Wun YT. Stress urinary incontinence in younger women in primary care: prevalence and opportunistic intervention. Journal of Women's Health 2014;23(1):65-8.
(27) Altaweel W, Alharbi M. Urinary incontinence: prevalence, risk factors, and impact on health related quality of life in Saudi women. Neurourology and urodynamics 2012;31(5):642-5.