• Logo
  • SBMUJournals

The Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis among Iranian Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Masoud Mohammadi, Ali Akbar Vaisi Raiegani, Rostam Jalali, Akram Ghobadi, Nader Salari



Purpose: Nocturnal enuresis is one of the most common diseases in children, which can affect their mental health. The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in Iranian children through systematic review and meta-analysis.

Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted through systematic review and meta-analysis during March 2000- July 2018. Articled related to the subject were reviewed by searching the Medline (PubMed), Scopus, ScienceDirect, SID, Magiran, Barakat, and Google Scholar databases where the heterogeneity of studies was investigated using I2 index. The data analysis was then carried out using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software.

Results: 15 articles with a sample size of 16614 individuals aged 3 to 18 years entered the meta-analysis process. The overall prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in children of Iran was 10.2% (95% CI: 7-14.8%). The highest and lowest prevalence of nocturnal enuresis was seen in children living in Tehran 28.5% (95% CI: 16.1% -45.4) and Tabriz 1.8% (95% CI: 1.2-2.8%), respectively. The findings of the present study revealed that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in children decreases with enlargement of the sample size. In addition, the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis grows with an increase in the years of research, which is statistically significant (P< 0.05).

Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the current study, health policy makers need to raise the awareness of families by taking efficient and effective policies.


Branca F, Piwoz E, Schultink W, Sullivan LM. Nutrition and health in women, children, and adolescent girls. BMJ. 2015; 351:h4173.

Liu H, Fang H, Zhao Z. Urban-rural disparities of child health and nutritional status in China from 1989 to 2006. Econ Hum Biol. 2013; 11(3):294-309.

Oge O,Kocak I, Gemalmaz H. Enuresis, point prevalence and associated factors among Turkish children Turkey pediatric 2001 Jan-mar ,43(1):38-43

Behrman ER, Kliegman MR, Jenson BH. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 18thed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2007: 113: 2249.

Gelder M, Mayou R, Geddes J. Psychiatry oxford core texts 1999. Translated by Mehdi Nadrifar, Ali Mokhtari, Amir Mojdi, Omid Abrahim Safarzadh, Pune Heshmati, Ehsan Rahimi kia. Tehran: Tayeb;2002, 19: 284

Hockenberry M, Wang D, Wilson D. Wong's nursing care of in fants and children. Translated by Puran Sami. Tehran: Boshra-Tohfe; 2009: 269-400.

Yousef KA, Basaleem HO, bin Yahiya MT.Epidemiology of nocturnal enuresis in basicschoolchildren in Aden Governorate, Yemen.Sa udi J Kidney Dis Tr a nspl. 2011; 22: 167-73.

Atkinson M, Hoernby G. Mental health in schools. Translated by Akbar Rahnama and Mohammad Faridi. Tehran: Ayeezh; 2008: 148-149.

Karbasi S, Golestan M, Fallah R. Enuresis children at 6years old and its related factors. Ofoghe- Danesh 2006; 15(4): 63-69.

Ghotbi N, Khirabadi GH R. Prevalence of Urinations and Related Factors in Primary School Children in Sanandaj, 2000. Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences. 2001; 5(20): 30-33

Zargar Y, Ghonvati M, Ashrafi SS. Investigating the incidence of urinary incontinence. Related factors for urinary disorder in preschool children. Journal of New Findings in Psychology. 2013; 8(26):5-22

Khazaie T, Khazaie M, Khazaie M. Prevalence of behavioral disorders among school children of Birjand. J Birjand Univ Med Sci. 2005; 12 (1 and 2) :9-15

Taziki M, Tajri H, Borghei A, Khorashadizadeh H. Factors Associated with Enuresis in Adenotonsillar Hypertrophy and the Effect of Surgery on it. jour guilan uni med sci. 2011; 20 (79) :62-67

Hajizadeh N, Hassanzad M. Study of symptoms in patientswith voiding dysfunction and their response to treatment. Iran J Pediatr. 2006; 16(3): 313-318

Haghbin S, Ibrahimi S, Pormohammadi A, Mohammadi J. The results of medical examinations of children at the time of entering the primary school in Yasuj and Gachsaran. Armaghan-e-danesh. 2003; 8(29): 17-27

Mohammadpour A, Basiri Moghaddam M, Jani S, Haidarpour S. Survey of Enuresis Frequency and Its Associated Factors Among School Children . Horizon Med Sci. 2012; 18 (2) :37-44

EmamGhoraishy F. Evaluation of prevalence of enuresis in school age children in Jahrom and related factors. jmj. 2004; 1 (1) :6-9

Hakim A, Kompani F, Bahadoram M. Factor's affecting nocturnal enuresis amongst school-aged children: brief report. Tehran Univ Med J. 2015; 73 (1) :60-64

Naderian M, Ellahi H, Yarigarravesh M. Study of Noctural Enuresis and Adenotonsillar Hypertrophy. RJMS. 2001; 7 (22) :331-334

Shafi Pour Z, Yousef Gomrokchi M, Paryad E, Atrkar-Roshan Z. Parasomnia in the Students of Primary Schools. J Holist Nurs Midwifery. 2014; 24 (4) :46-52

Ranjbar kochaksaraei F, Nabdel Y, Fakhari A, Dadashzadeh H. The Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents in the Northwest of Tabriz. Medical Journal of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. 2003; 73(59): 56-60

Hashem M, Morteza A, Mohammad K, Ahmad-Ali N. Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in school aged children: the role of personal and parents related socio-economic and educational factors. Iran J Pediatr. 2013; 23(1):59-64.

Amiri S, Shafiee-Kandjani AR, Fakhari A, Abdi S, Golmirzaei J, Akbari Rafi Z, Safikhanlo S. Psychiatric comorbidities in ADHD children: an Iranian study among primary school students. Arch Iran Med. 2013; 16(9):513-7

Safarinejad MR. Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis, risk factors, associated familial factors and urinary pathology among school children in Iran. J Pediatr Urol. 2007; 3(6):443-52.

Mckenna PH, Herdon A. Voiding dysfunction associated with incontinence, vesicoureteral reflux and urinary tract infection. Curr Opin Urol. 2003; 10(6): 599-606.

Ozden C, Ozdal OL, Altinova S, Oguzulgen I,Urgancioglu G, Memis A. Prevalence and associated factors of enuresis in Turkish children.Int Br a z J Ur ol. 2007; 33: 216-22.

Nuhoglu B, Ayyildiz A, Fidan V, Cebeci O,Kosar U, Germiyanoglu C. Do children withprimary nocturnal enuresis have a retarded boneage? A cross-sectional study. Int J Ur ol. 2006; 13:109-110

Stephen B, sulkes. Develop mental and behavioral pediatrics. Behrman kliegman .Essential of pediatrics. Third ed. 1998. Saunders Philadelphia.P:33-34

Gumus B, virgin N.Lekil M. at all prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and accompanying factors in children aged 7-11 years in Turkey . Acta Pediatr. 1999; 88(12):1369-72

Ismail A, Abdelbasser K, Abdel-moneim M. Prevalence and risk factors of primary nocturnal enuresis in primary school children in Qena Governorate-Egypt. Egypt J Neurol Psychiat Neurosurg 2013; 50(2):163-9.

Dolgun G, Savaser S, Balci S, Yazici S. Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and related factors in children aged 5-13in istanbul. Iran J Pediatr 2012; 22(2):205-12.

Kalo BB, Bella H. Enuresis: prevalence and associated factors among primary school children in Saudi Arabia. Acta Paediatr. 1996; 85(10):1217-22.

Chang P.Chen WJ .Tsai Wy .Stal An epidemiological study of nocturnal enure sis in Taiwanian children BJU int. 2001; 87(7):678-8.

Lee SD. Sohn DW .Lee JZ. et al .An epidemiological study of enuresis in Korean children BJU Int .2000 May ;85(7) :869 –73

Solanki AN, Desai SG. Prevalence and risk factors of nocturnal enuresis among school age children in rural areas. Int J Res Med Sci2014;2(1):202-5

Liu,X sun Z,Uchiyama M,et al .Attaining nocturnal urinary control , nocturnal enuresis and behavior problem in Chinese children aged 6 through 16 years. J.AM Acad. Child Adolesc psychiatry 2000; 34(12):1557-64

Bower EF, More KH. Shepherd Rb,et al. The Epidemiology of children enuresis in Australia, Br J urol 1996:78(4):602-6.

Chozza ML, Bernardinelli L, Caione P, Del Gado R, Ferrara P, Giorgi PL, Montomoli C, Rottoli A, Vertucci P. An Italian epidemiological multi centre study of nocturnal enuresis. Br J Urol. 1998; 81(3):86-9.

Ouédraogo A, Kere M, Ouédraogo TL, Jesu F. Epidemiology of enuresis in children and adolescents aged 5-16 years in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Arch Pediatr. 1997; 4(10):947-51.

Paul NI, Alikor E, Anochie IC. Factors associated with enuresis among primary school children in Port Harcourt. Niger J Paediatr. 2013;40(4):370-4

Ghahramani M, Basiri Moghadam M, Ghahramani AA. Nocturnal Enuresis and Impact on Growth. Iran J Pediatr 2008; 18(2): 167-170

Clavero Arévalo M, Toro Trallero J. Enuresis and encopresis: their relationship. An Esp Pediatr. 1993; 39(4):320-4.

Fritz, G. Rockney, B.W. Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with enuresis. J.Am. Acad. Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004; 43(12), 1540-1550.

Sengler J, Minaire P. Epidemiology and psycho-social consequences of urinary incontinence. Rev Prat. 1995; 45(3):281-5.

Serel TA, Akhan G, Koyuncuoğlu HR, Oztürk A, Doğruer K, Unal S, Celik K. Epidemiology of enuresis in Turkish children. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 1997; 31(6):537-9.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/uj.v0i0.5194


  • There are currently no refbacks.